Sources and Resources for "Unexpected Promise"

Conflict Background

Lesley McCulloch, Aceh: Then and Now (London: Minority Rights Group International, May 2005),

Kirsten E. Schulze, The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization, Policy Studies No. 2 (Washington, D.C.: East-West Center, 2004),

Peace Negotiations and Agreement

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement, August 15, 2005.  Available at the Web site of the Crisis Management Initiative (the facilitator of the peace negotiations),

Katri Merikallio, Making Peace: Ahtisaari and Aceh (Helsinki, Finland: WS Bookwell Oy, 2006).  Online order page:

Post-Tsunami Recovery

John Telford and John Cosgrave, Joint Evaluation of the International Response to the Indian Ocean Tsunami: Synthesis Report, Tsunami Evaluation Coalition, London, July 2006,

Eye on Aceh and Aid Watch, A People’s Agenda? Post-Tsunami Aid in Aceh, February 2006,, or

UN Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery,

UN Office of the United Nations Recovery Coordinator for Aceh and Nias,

Indonesia Tsunami Relief Portal,

Peace Implementation

International Crisis Group, Aceh: Now for the Hard Part, Asia Briefing No. 48 (Jakarta and Brussels: 29 March 2006),

Pieter Feith, “The Aceh Monitoring Mission Experience,” Paper presented at Seminar ‘Beyond the Tsunami from Recovery to Peace,’ Jakarta, Indonesia, 3 May 2006,

Refugee Return and Reintegration of Combatants

Eva-Lotta E. Hedman, “The Right to Return: IDPs in Aceh,” Forced Migration Review, No. 25 (May 2006),

World Bank, GAM Reintegration Needs Assessment: Enhancing Peace through Community-Level Development Planning, March 2006,

Human Rights

East-West Center and Human Rights Center for the University of California, After the Tsunami. Human Rights of Vulnerable Populations (Honolulu, HI and Berkeley, CA: October 2005),

TAPOL—The Indonesia Human Rights Campaign,


Down to Earth, Aceh: Logging a Conflict Zone, published in the “Eye on Aceh” series, October 2004,

Women and Islam in Aceh

Crisis Management Initiative, “The Aceh Peace Process: Involvement of Women,” Helsinki, August 2006,

International Crisis Group, Islamic Law and Criminal Justice in Aceh, Asia Report No. 117 (Jakarta and Brussels: 31 July 2006),


A set of pre- and post-tsunami satellite pictures is available at

A set of 240 photos taken by the author during a research and fact-finding visit to Aceh in December 2005 is available at  Most of the images were taken in Banda Aceh, with some in Sigli, Bireuen, and Lhokseumawe along Aceh’s northeastern coast.

For those interested in a very large pool of photos taken in Aceh, the photo-sharing site currently hosts more than 3,600 images, typically taken by amateur photographers, many of them members of humanitarian aid groups.  See

Acheh Times has a number of historical pictures relating to Aceh’s anti-colonial and pro-independence struggles, at, plus video and audio at