Energy and Climate

One Twelfth of Global Electricity Comes from Combined Heat and Power Systems

Product Number: 
VST121

Strong Growth in Compact Fluorescent Bulbs Reduces Electricity Demand

Product Number: 
VST120

Carbon Markets Gain Momentum, Despite Challenges

Product Number: 
VST103

The global carbon market has expanded quickly over the past two years, buoyed by new and continued interest among national and regional governments in curbing carbon emissions.

Notes: 

1.Point Carbon, “Global Carbon Market Grows 80% in 2007,” press release (Oslo: 18 January 2008). Dollar amount converted from euros using exchange rate for 18 January 2008.

2.World Bank, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2007 (Washington, DC: May 2007), p. 3.

3. European Communities, “EU Action Against Climate Change,” brochure, September 2005, p. 8.

4. Ibid. Euros converted to dollars on 18 January 2008.

5. Ibid.

6.World Bank, op. cit. note 2.

7. Ibid.

8. European Communities, op. cit. note 3, p. 9; European Commission, “Climate Change: Commission Proposes Bringing Air Transport into EU Emissions Trading Scheme,” press release (Brussels: 20 December 2006).

9. Alex Dewar et al., Cap and Trade Policy in the United States (draft) (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council, August 2007), p. 12.

10.World Bank, op. cit. note 2.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13.World Bank, “Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Launched at Bali Climate Meeting,” press release (Bali, Indonesia: 11 December 2007).

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid.

16. Katherine Hamilton et al., State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2007: Picking Up Steam (San Francisco: Ecosystem Marketplace, July 2007), p. 5.

17. Point Carbon, “Carbon Market North America,” 16 January 2008, at www.pointcarbon.com, p. 4.

18. This does not include emissions from gas flaring, cement making, or land use change. U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are a Worldwatch calculation from BP, Statistical Review of World Energy (London: 2007); U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Status of Ratification,” at unfccc.int, viewed 18 January 2008.

19. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, “About RGGI,” at www.rggi.org, viewed 20 July 2007; Point Carbon, op. cit. note 17.

20. Office of the Governor, “Gov. Schwarzenegger Signs Landmark Legislation to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” press release (27 September 2006); Felicity Barringer, “Officials Reach California Deal to Cut Emissions,” New York Times, 31 August 2006; Point Carbon, “Carbon Market North America,” 1 August 2007, at www.pointcarbon.com.

21. Office of the Governor, op. cit. note 20.

22.Western Climate Initiative, at www.westernclimate initiative.org, viewed 28 January 2008.

23. Ibid.

Carbon Emissions Continue Unrelenting Rise

Product Number: 
VST011

In 2006, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)
concentrations reached 381.84 parts per million
by volume, an increase of 0.6 percent over the
record set in 2005.1 (See Figure 1.) Average

Notes: 
Steven Piper, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
University of California, San Diego, e-mail to Una
Song, Worldwatch Institute, 13 March 2007.
2. Increase since 1959 from C. D. Keeling et al.,
“Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) Derived
from In Situ Air Samples Collected at Mauna Lao
Observatory, Hawaii,” Scripps Institution of
Oceanography, University of California, San Diego,
May 2005, and from Piper, op. cit. note 1; preindustrial
value was 280 parts per million, per
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science
Basis—Summary for Policymakers (Geneva: February
2007), p. 2.
3. IPCC, op. cit. note 2, p. 2.
4. Calculated by Worldwatch with data from BP, Statistical
Review of World Energy (London: 2006), and
from G. Marland et al., “Global, Regional, and
National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions,” in Carbon
Dioxide Information Analysis Center, A Compendium
of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy,
2006).
5. Calculated by Worldwatch with data from BP, op.
cit. note 4, and from Marland et al., op. cit. note 4.
6. U.S. share calculated by Worldwatch: global total
estimated with data from Marland et al., op. cit.
note 4, and from BP, op. cit. note 4; U.S. emissions
from U.S. Energy Information Administration,
Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Emissions
of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2005
(Washington, DC: November 2006), p. 13.
7. Lauren Morello, “Climate: U.S. Electricity Demand
Spurred 0.8 Percent Rise in ’04 Emissions—EPA,”
Environment and Energy News, 20 February 2007.
8. Alister Doyle, “Greenhouse Gases Hit New High,
May Be Asia Growth,” Reuters, 19 February 2007.
9.Worldwatch calculation, based on BP, op. cit. note
4; surpassing United States before 2010 according
to International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook
2006 (Paris: 2006), Executive Summary, p. 5.
10. IPCC, op. cit. note 2.
11. Number of experts from Michael Byrnes, “Interview—
Scientist Says Sea Level Rise Could Accelerate,”
Reuters, 13 March 2007; IPCC, op. cit. note 2,
pp. 8, 10.
12. Alister Doyle, “Tropical Losers, Northern Winner for
Warming?” Scientific American, 3 April 2007;
Andrew C. Revkin, “Poor Nations to Bear Brunt as
World Warms,” New York Times, 1 April 2007.
13. Land-ocean index from J. Hansen et al., “Global
Land-Ocean Temperature Index in .01C, Base
Period 1951–1980 (January-December),” Goddard
Institute for Space Studies, at www.giss.nasa.gov/
data/update/gistemp/GLB.Ts+dSST.txt.
14. Australia from Andrew C. Revkin, “Global Warming
Trend Continues in 2006, Climate Agencies Say,”
New York Times, 15 December 2006; China from
“Shanghai Has Warmest Winter on Record,” Reuters,
2 March 2007; United Kingdom from Ian Sample,
“This Year Will Be Britain’s Warmest Since Records
Began, Say Scientists,” Guardian, 14 December 2006.
15. U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), “NOAA Says U.S. Winter Temperature
Near Average, Global December-February
Temperature Warmest on Record,” press release
(Washington, DC: 15 March 2007).
16. Hansen et al., op. cit. note 13.
17. Peter N. Spotts, “New Search for Global Warming at
Poles,” Christian Science Monitor, 26 February 2007;
Lauren Morello, “Climate: Int’l Research Effort ‘to
Unlock Mysteries of the Poles’,” Greenwire, 26 February
2007.
18. IPCC, op. cit. note 2, p. 8.
19. Deborah Zabarenko, “Global Warming Is a Human
www.worldwatch.org Vital Signs 2007–2008 135
Notes
Rights Issue—Nobel Nominee,” Reuters, 5 March
2007.
20. September ice from IPCC, op. cit. note 2, p. 8, and
from National Climatic Data Center, NOAA, “Climate
of 2006—Annual Report, 11 January 2007, at
www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/2006/ann/
global.html.
21. “Climate: This Winter Was World’s Warmest on
Record, Feds Say,” Greenwire, 16 March 2007; “The
Senate’s Task on Warming” (editorial), New York
Times, 6 January 2007.
22. “Senate’s Task on Warming,” op. cit. note 21.
23. Nicholas Stern, The Economics of Climate Change: The
Stern Review (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Press, 2006), Summary of Conclusions and
Executive Summary.
24. Michelle Nichols, “Climate Change as Dangerous as
War—UN Chief Ban,” Reuters, 2 March 2007.
25. Darren Samuelsohn, “Climate: Lawmakers Begin
Looking Abroad for Clues on Emission Curbs,”
Greenwire, 26 March 2007.
26. International Emissions Trading Association and
World Bank, State and Trends of the Carbon Market
2006, Update: (January 1-September 30, 2006) (Washington,
DC: October 2006), Executive Summary.
27. First nine months of 2006 from International Emissions
Trading Association and World Bank, op. cit.
note 26; 2005 total from Heather Timmons, “Data
Leaks Shake Up Carbon Trade,” New York Times, 16
May 2006; China and India from The Climate Institute,
“Join the $30 Billion International Carbon
Market,” press release (Sydney, Australia: 7 February
2007).
28. “Climate: EU Commits to Emissions, Renewable
Energy Targets,” Greenwire, 9 March 2007.
29. States from David Ammons, “Lawmakers Join Al
Gore’s Crusade to Ease Climate Change,” Seattle
Post-Intelligencer, 10 March 2007; Timothy Gardner,
“Investors to Press US Congress on Global
Warming,” Reuters, 19 March 2007.

Despite Obstacles, Biofuels Continue Surge

Product Number: 
VST109

World production of biofuels rose some 20 percent to an estimated 54 billion liters in 2007.1 (See Figure 1.) These gains meant biofuels accounted for 1.5 percent o

Notes: 
  • Total world fuel ethanol and biodiesel production figures taken from REN21, Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Paris and Washington, DC: REN21 Secretariat and Worldwatch Institute), Table R6 and p. 8, and from Rodrigo G. Pinto and Suzanne C. Hunt, "Biofuel Flows Surge," in Worldwatch Insti­tute, Vital Signs 2007-2008 (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007), pp. 40-41, citing F.O. Licht.
  • Worldwatch calculation based on REN21, op. cit. note 1, and on Pinto and Hunt, op. cit. note 1.
  • Ibid.
  • Ibid.
  • Ibid; Christoph Berg, senior analyst, F.O. Licht, e-mails to Rodrigo G. Pinto, Worldwatch Institute, 20-22 March 2007.
  • Worldwatch calculation based on REN 21, op. cit. note 1, and on Renewable Fuels Association, Changing the Climate: Ethanol Industry Outlook 2008 (Washington, DC: February 2008); Renewable Fuels Association, "Annual World Ethanol Production by Country," at www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#E.
  • REN21, op. cit. note 1; Renewable Fuels Association, Outlook 2008, op. cit. note 6.
  • Renewable Fuels Association, Outlook 2008, op. cit. note 6, p. 2.
  • Ibid., p. 16.
  • REN21, op. cit. note 1, p. 13.
  • Worldwatch calculation from European Biodiesel Board, "2007 Production Capacity Statistics," at www.ebb-eu.org/stats.php.
  • Michael Hogan, "German Biodiesel Output Collapses," Reuters.com, 15 January 2008.
  • Ibid.; "German Biodiesel Firm Cuts Output as Sales Fall," Reuters.com, 26 March 2008.
  • "German Biodiesel Firm," op. cit. note 13.
  • European Biodiesel Board, op. cit. note 11.
  • REN21, op. cit. note 1, p. 15.
  • Renewable Fuels Association, Outlook 2008, op. cit. note 6, p. 8; Soo Ai Peng, "Record Oil Price Boosts Demand for Biofuels but Critics Question the Cost," Forbes.com, 19 October 2007.
  • Renewable Fuels Association, Outlook 2008, op. cit. note 6; Renewable Fuels Association, "Renewable Fuel Standard," at www.ethanolrfa.org/resource/standard.
  • REN21, op. cit. note 1, p. 28.
  • Ibid.; Masami Kojima, Donald Mitchell, and William Ward, Considering Trade Policies for Liquid Biofuels, World Bank Energy Sector Management and Assistance Program (Washington DC: April 2007), p. 47.
  • REN21, op. cit. note 1, p. 27.
  • Ibid., p. 16.
  • Ibid.
  • "New Energy Finance: New Clean Energy Invest­ments in 2007 Totaled $117.2 Billion," Clean Edge News, 8 January 2008.
  • Ibid.
  • "Analyzing the Bull Run by Clean Energy Shares in 2007," New Energy Finance, press release (London: 16 January 2008).
  • "New Energy Finance," op. cit. note 24.
  • John Vidal, "Global Food Crisis Looms as Climate Change and Fuel Shortages Bite," (London) The Guardian, 3 November 2007.
  • Ibid.; Eli Clifton, "Biofuels Pushing Up Food Aid Prices," Ipsnews.net, 27 July 2007; Kathleen Kingsbury, "After the Oil Crisis, A Food Crisis?" Time, 16 November 2007.
  • Valerie Mercer-Blackman, Hossein Samiei, and Kevin Change, "Biofuel Demand Pushes Up Food Prices," IMF Survey Magazine, posted 17 October 2007; "Indian Minister Attacks Biofuels," BBC News, 26 March 2008.
  • Joseph Fargione et al., "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt," Science, 29 February 2008, pp. 1235-38; Timothy Searchinger et al., "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land Use Change," Science, 7 February 2008.
  • Elisabeth Rosenthal, "Once a Dream Fuel, Palm Oil May Be an Eco-Nightmare," New York Times, 31 January 2007.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 115; "UN Climate Change Conference," December 2007, at www.un.org/climatechange/blog/index.asp.
  • "Europe and US Take Clean Energy Lead While Japan Wavers," New Energy Finance Week in Review, 1-7 April 2008.
  • California Energy Commission "Low-Carbon Fuel Standard," at www.energy.ca.gov/low_carbon_fuel_standard.
  • Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, at www.rspo.org.
  • Joel Bourne, Jr., "Green Dreams," National Geographic, October 2007, pp. 38-60.

Wind Power Continues Rapid Rise

Product Number: 
VST108

Global wind power capacity reached 94,100 megawatts by the end of 2007, up 27 percent from the previous year, and then topped 100,000 megawatts by April 2008.1 (See

Notes: 
  1. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), "US, China & Spain Lead World Wind Power Market in 2007," press release (Brussels: 15 February 2008); GWEC, "Global Wind Installations Pass 100 GW, and Are Predicted to Rise to 240 GW by 2012," press release (Brussels: 1 April 2008). Figure 1 from the following: BTM Consult, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), Windpower Monthly, New Energy; 2005 data are a Worldwatch estimate based on GWEC, "Global Wind Energy Markets Continue to Boom-2006 Another Record Year," press release (Brussels: 2 February 2007); 2006 and 2007 data from GWEC, Table: "Global Installed Wind Power Capacity (MW)-Regional Distribution," 2008, at www.gwec.net, viewed 4 April 2008.
  2. GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1. Figure 2 from sources for Figure 1 cited in note 1.
  3. EWEA, "Wind Energy Leads EU Power Installations in 2007, But National Growth is Inconsistent," press release (Brussels: 4 February 2008).
  4. AWEA, "Wind Power Outlook 2008," at www.awea.org/Market_Report_Jan08.pdf. Figure 3 from the following: 1980-2001 for Germany from Bundes­verband WindEnergie (BWE), EWEA; United States from Paul Gipe, AWEA; Spain from Instituto para Diversificacion y Ahorro Energetico; 2002-04 from BTM Consult ApS, EWEA, AWEA; 2005 from GWEC, "Record Year for Wind Energy: Global Wind Power Market Increased by 43% in 2005," press release (Brussels: 17 February 2006); 2006 from GWEC, "Global Wind Energy Markets Continue to Boom," op. cit. note 1; 2007 from GWEC, "Global Installed Wind Power Capacity," op. cit. note 1; China data from Shi Pengfei, "Wind Power in China," presentation, Guangzhou, China, 23 March 2007, and from Shi Pengfei, "2006 Wind Instal­la­tions in China" (Beijing, China General Certification Center, 2007), both cited in Eric Martinot and Junfeng Li, Powering China's Development: The Role of Renewable Energy, Special Report (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, November 2007), and from GWEC, "Global Installed Wind Power Capacity," op. cit. note 1.
  5. AWEA, op. cit. note 4.
  6. AWEA, "Installed U.S. Wind Power Capacity Surged 45% in 2007: American Wind Energy Association Market Report," press release (Washington: 17 January 2008).
  7. States from REN21, Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Paris and Washington, DC: REN21 Secre­tariat and Worldwatch Institute, 2008), p. 25.
  8. Texas and 30 percent from Graham Jesmer, "Wind Power Helps Texas Move Past Oil," RenewableEnergyAccess.com, 28 November 2008; six states from AWEA, op. cit. note 4.
  9. EWEA, op. cit. note 3.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Nearly 4 percent from ibid.; carbon dioxide avoided from GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1.
  13. European share from GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1; 60 percent is Worldwatch calculation based on ibid. and on EWEA, op. cit. note 3.
  14. Germany total from EWEA, "Wind Power Installed in Europe by End of 2007 (cumulative)," map and tables, at www.ewea.org, viewed 13 February 2008; share of global total is Worldwatch calculation based on ibid. and on GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1.
  15. Andreas Wagner, GE Wind Energy, Salzbergen, Germany, discussion with author, 28 March 2008.
  16. Installations in 2007 from EWEA, op. cit. note 14; 25 percent less from "World Wind Energy Market to Grow in '08-German VDMA," Reuters, 23 January 2008.
  17. Share of electricity from renewables (6.3 percent) in 2000 from Jane Burgermeister, "EU to Fall Short of 2010 Renewable Energy Target," RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 31 August 2007; share exceeded 14 percent by the end of 2007, from Erik Kirschbaum, "Europe's Renewables Lead Stirs US Concern-Germany," Reuters, 19 March 2008.
  18. "Wind Wire," Windpower Monthly, February 2008, p. 8.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Total capacity from EWEA, op. cit. note 14; share of electricity needs from EWEA, op. cit. note 3.
  21. EWEA, op. cit. note 14.
  22. EWEA, op. cit. note 3.
  23. Figure of 78 percent is Worldwatch calculation based on GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1, on AWEA, op. cit. note 6, and on EWEA, op. cit. note 3; more than 70 nations from GWEC, "Wind: A Global Power Source," at www.gwec.net, viewed 13 February 2008; Zimbabwe from Henry David Venema and Moussa Cisse, Seeing the Light: Adapting to Climate Change with Decentralized Renewable Energy in Developing Countries (Winnipeg, MN, Canada: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2004), p. 109.
  24. GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1.
  25. Additions in 2007 from ibid. and from Steve Sawyer, GWEC, discussion with author, 5 March 2008; total from GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1; target of 5,000 MW by 2010 from Martinot and Li, op. cit. note 4, p. 17.
  26. "China Wind Power Hits 5.6 GW," RenewableEnergyWorld.com, 18 January 2008;" Sawyer, op. cit. note 25.
  27. Prediction for 2008 from "China Wind Power Hits 5.6 GW," op. cit. note 26; 2015 prediction from GWEC, "US, China & Spain Lead," op. cit. note 1.
  28. GWEC, "Top 10 Total Installed Capacity," and "Top 10 New Capacity," tables, at www.gwec.net, viewed 4 April 2008.
  29. Canada, Brazil, Chile, and Egypt from Birger Madsen, BTM Consult ApS, e-mail to author, 20 February 2008; New Zealand from GWEC, "Global Installed Wind Power Capacity," op. cit. note 1.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Stephen Lacey, "Despite Rising Costs, Wind Industry Thriving Worldwide," RenewableEnergyAccess.com, 26 July 2007.
  33. Johnson, op. cit. note 30.
  34. GWEC, op. cit. note 23.
  35. Turbine shortage and materials costs from AWEA, op. cit. note 4; manufacturing profitability from Daniel Kammen, "A Snapshot of the U.S. Wind Industry," GreenBiz.com, December 2007.
  36. Natural gas plants from Kammen, op. cit. note 36; all conventional plants from AWEA, op. cit. note 4.
  37. GWEC, op. cit. note 23; REN21, op. cit. note 7, p. 16.
  38. GWEC, op. cit. note 23.
  39. Lyn Harrison, "A Momentous Proposal," Windpower Monthly, February 2008, p. 6.
  40. Ibid.
  41. BTM Consult ApS, World Market Update 2002 (Ringköbing, Denmark: 2002), p. ix.

Nuclear Power Crawling Forward

Product Number: 
VST112

In 2007, global installed capacity of nuclear power grew by less than 2,000 megawatts to 372,000 megawatts.1 (See Figure 1.) The slight growth in nuclear power is at

Notes: 
  1. Installed nuclear capacity is defined as reactors connected to the grid as of 31 December 2007 and is based on the Worldwatch Institute database compiled from statistics from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Power Reactor Information System, at www.iaea.org/programmes/a2.
  2. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  3. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, "Global Wind Energy Capacity Increases 27% in 2007," EERE NEWS, 6 February 2008.
  4. Peter Kaplan, "Report Says Developing Countries Eye Nuclear Power," Reuters, 12 May 2008; James Kanter, "International Agency Urges the Start of an Energy Revolution," New York Times, 8 June 2008.
  5. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  6. Based on Worldwatch Institute database compiled from statistics from IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  7. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  8. Based on Worldwatch Institute data base compiled from statistics from IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  9. Mycle Schneider with Antony Froggat, The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2007 (Brussels: The Greens-European Free Alliance in the European Parliament, January 2008), pp. 7-8.
  10. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.; Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, p. 37; World Nuclear Association, "Information Paper: Plans for New Nuclear Reactors Worldwide," March 2008, at www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf17.html.
  13. Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, p. 34.
  14. World Nuclear Association, "Information Paper: Fast Neutron Reactors," February 2008, at www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf98.html.
  15. Bjorn Carey, "A Floating Chernobyl?" Popular Science, 10 October 2006, at www.popsci.com.
  16. Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, pp. 29-31.
  17. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.; Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, pp. 7-8.
  21. Alan Katz, "Nuclear Bid to Rival Coal Chilled by Flaws, Delay in Finland," Bloomberg News, 4 September 2007.
  22. James Etheridge, "TVO Says Won't Share Nuclear Reactor Cost Overruns with Areva," Thomson Financial News, 28 September 2007.
  23. Katz, op. cit. note 21.
  24. John Tagliabue, "China Deal Gives Lift to Revival of Fission," New York Times, 26 November 2007.
  25. Katz, op. cit. note 21.
  26. Ibid.
  27. "Japan Nuke Plant Leak Bigger than Thought," Associated Press, 18 July 2007; Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, p. 23.
  28. "Nuclear Generation Drops 1.9% in 2007," World Nuclear News, 9 June 2008, at www.world-nuclear-news.org.
  29. Schneider with Froggat, op. cit. note 9, p. 23.
  30. IAEA, op. cit. note 1.
  31. Dan Murphy, "Middle East Racing to Nuclear Power," Christian Science Monitor, 1 November 2007.
  32. William Broad and David E. Sanger, "With Eye on Iran, Rivals Also Want Nuclear Power," New York Times, 15 April 2007.
  33. Duncan Mansfield, "US Nuclear Revival Begins with Restart of TVA's Oldest Reactor," Associated Press, 6 May 2007; "Watts Bar Nuclear Plant," Tennessee Valley Authority, at www.tva.gov/sites/wattsbarnuc.htm.
  34. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "Expected New Nuclear Power Plant Applications," updated 4 June 2008, at www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-licensing/new-licensing-files/expected-new-rx-applications.pdf.
  35. Edmund L. Andrews and Matthew Wald, "Energy Bill Aids Expansion of Atomic Power," New York Times, 31 July 2007.
  36. Moody's Global Credit Research, "New Nuclear Generation in the United States: Keeping Options Open vs. Addressing an Inevitable Necessity," October 2007.
  37. Ibid.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Asjylyn Loder, "Nuclear Power Costs Surge in Rush to Build: Customers May Help Shoulder the Increase," St. Petersburg Times, 12 December 2007.
  40. William J. Fehrman, President and Chief Nuclear Officer, MidAmerican Nuclear Energy Company, "RE: Withdrawal from Consideration and Return of Letter of Intent Submitted to NRC August 28, 2007," to David B. Matthews, Director, Division of New Reactor Licensing, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 5 December 2007.
  41. Scott DiSavino, "MidAmerican Drops Idaho Nuclear Project Due to Cost," Reuters, 29 January 2008.
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